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NATURE OF NAKHCHIVAN

 

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is allocated on southwest of Small Caucuses. In the region of geomorphology regioning of the territory of Azerbaijan Republic, the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is related to semi-regions of adjacent Mountains and Nakhchivan conclave (Memdium Araks) of the geomorphologic region of the territory of Small Caucasus. In the territory of Autonomous Republic the semi-region adjacent mountains of Daralayaz and Zangezur edges and semi-region of Nakhchivan cavity basically surrounded by Arazboy plains. The medium height distance over sea level equals 1450 m. The one third part of the territory includes more than 1000m height highlands areas. And the one third of the territory are covered by sloped Arazboy plains (Sadarak, Sharur, Boyukduz, Nakhchivan, Djulfa, Yaychi, Kangarli, Dasta, Ordubad and etc) being separated from each other by rock hands and pickets. The total area of the plains equals to 10 thousands hectares.

 

 

 

RELIEF

 

Most part of the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is covered by Zangazur and Daralayaz mountain ridges of small Caucasus and its hands leading to Araks valley, which forms middle and lower mountains in modern relief. Zangezur ridges are the top highest mountain ridges in small Caucasus. The highest top is Gapijic mountain (3906m) and at the same time within Small Caucasus of Azerbaijan Republic it is considered the top highest peak and constant snow is laid from 41m-height level. High tops: Yaglidara mountain –3827m, Gazangoldag – 3814m, Saridara mountain – 3754 m, Davaboyu montain –3560 m and etc. Absolute height of mounting passing is among – 2346m (Bicanak crossing), 3362 m (Aycongal crossing).    

 

 

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND MINERALS

 

The territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic has been attracted by attention of geologists and travelers still since middle 18 century. In the field of minerals reas (Duzdag, Daridag, Shakardara, Gomur, Guyuludag, Giszilgaya and etc.). Being discovered caves, wells, primitive instruments of labor findings, still from the ancient times it shows that within the territory of Nakhchivan Republic there are deposits of salt, arsenic, copper, gold, sulfur and others: in the Middle Ages in Azerbaijan territory there were founded scientific – descriptive mineralogy tractates –“Djavahirname”. In the territory the first geological research works and mineral wealthy studying have been commenced since the 2nd half of 18th century. Foundation exploring works carried out in the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic have been started since when Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic was established. 

Taking into account geological factor the territory of Autonomous Republic is allocated at Small Caucasus Nakchevan plicate tectonic zones. Geological structure total thickness is formed from 14 kilometers coverings of vugs, land surface beds. Their extractions being lifted on the land surface found possibilities on carrying out refurbishment works on geological history accounting 400 million year in the territory of Nakhhcivan. The discovered produced rocks, being widely spread out, constructional stones and glass products in such beds with hollow structures play important role in development of local industry. 

 

 

Nakhchivan ore deposits are as follows:

 

1.       Pyazbashi golden bed.

 

That deposit is allocated in the territory of Ordubad region. It is placed in 4 km towards north-west and 1800-2700 meters in height. The main ore minerals are pyrite, halcopryte, bornyte, malachite and pure gold. In the ore the gold quantity percentage constitutes from 1,0-1,9 g/t, copper 0,1-1,8%. The field can be put into operation

 

 

2.     Blue Mountain copper – porphyry deposit

 

This deposit is placed in Djulfa region. It is in 2 km from south-west head village, in 2050-2000 height over sea level. Distribution of copper and molybdenum compositions is fully equaled and composes of copper – 1-2,7%, molybdenum – 0,01-0,08%. Main copper minerals are composed of  pyrites, halcopryte, faleryte, galenyte, molybdenum and copper minerals.

The field can be put into operation.

 

 

3.     Diyakhchay copper- porphyry deposit (field, bed)

 

That bed is from Ordubad region. In 1,5 km distance from north-east direction of Nus-Nus village. It is placed in 2000m heights over sea level. There are two technological ore types; basically there are known copper and molybdenum.

In Shtokverk type ore (it is observed at 1500 m in the thickness of 70-100m), copper amount –0,006-2,25%, molybdenum – 0,01-0,31% and thickness –2m-20m, being laid in 55mcopper-molybdenum ores deposits, 0,01-0,27%, copper 0,01-0,85% was found in south and south-west direction. The bed can be put into operation  

 

 

4.          Copper Mountain – porphyry field

 

That field is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in Aychangilchay river upper flow side at 3000-3500 m height over sea level.

Copper porphyry ore bed is deemed as a muscular type deposit. In the ore deposit there are exist copper -0,002-2%, molybdenum- 0,001-0,02%.

Main ore minerals elements are pyrite, khalkopyrite, azurite, koveline kupryte, malachite and in less quantity – molybdenum. The field can be put into operation.

 

 

5.          Agyurd (White homeland) golden field.

 

This deposit is placed in Ordubad area. It is placed in 2300-2750m heights over sea level.

Main ore minerals elements like pyrite, khalkopyrite, molybdonyte are composed of copper minerals and petty dispersed gold. 

In the ore deposit the quantity of gold is ranged – 0,4 -11,6 g/t, copper-0,04 - 1,4%, molybdenum 0,03 - 0,09%.  The field can be put into operation

 

 

6.          Green copper-porfir deposit

 

That field is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in 2,4 km from Pazmali village in northwest direction and allocated in Shiladzochay left slope side and at 2200-2500m height over sea level.

Having thickness in 300m it can be watched in distance of 500m and in ore beds, copper quantity is ranged 0,1-1,4%, molybdenum 0,01-0,8%. 

Main ore minerals pyrite, khalkopiryte, molybdenite, khalkozin, bornit minerals. The field can be put into operation.

 

 

7.         Blue high copper porphyry deposit

 

That bed is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in 2 km of northwest direction from Pazmari village in upper field of Vanadchay River at 2150-2600m heights over sea level.

Having thickness of the bed ranged in 5,6 –15m and total width in 400-500m, it is can be looked at the distance amounted to 5500-1500m. Here the copper amount is ranged in 0,44-1,33%, molybdenum – in 0,001-0,5%.

The main ore minerals are pyrite, khalkopiryte, molibdenit, kovelin, bornyte, kupryte and malachite. The deposit can be put into operation.

 

 

8.         Nasirvaz poly-metal deposit  

 

That field is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in Nasirvaz village at 1800-2300m heights in vicinity of Nasirvaz village.

Ore deposits processing with thickness in 60-120m can be looked in 2,2km distance and it forms zink-1,2%, plumbum-1,16%, copper-0,4%.  

Main ore minerals are pyrite, galenite, sfarenite, khalkopryte, bornyte, kupryte and copper minerals. The field can be put into operation

 

 

9.         Agdara poly-metal deposit

 

This deposit is belonged to Ordubad region. It is allocated in 25 km from Aza railroad station in north direction at 2100-2550km heights over sea level.

It is considered as a ore polymetal processing layer, lens, vein type. In industry – in type of significant form layer. In the ore deposit there are exists lead-6,6%, zink-8,9%, copper-1,0.

The field was given for operation in 1952.

 

 

10.        Shakardara gold deposit

 

This field is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in 30 km in northwest direction at 1500-2000m heights over sea level.

      The field is allocated in northwest direction and being possessed by thickness in 1,0-8,0m it can be watched at 1500m distances. The gold quantity rate in ore bed composes 1,4 g/t, copper-1,9%. Main ore minerals, like pyrite, khalkopryte, saflerite, copper mineral formations are composed of pure gold. The field can be put into operation.

 

 

11.        Goy-gol copper – profyre deposits

 

This deposit is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in 3 km from Nurgut village in northwest direction at 2800-3554 over sea level.

Like a stem whilst the zone thickness is 60-140m it can be watched from 900m till 1700m and forms copper rate –0,47-1,6%, molybdenum - 0,01-0,05%.

Main ore mineral like pyrite, khalkoprite, bornyte, kovelmin are copper and molybdenum mineral formations. The field can be put into operation. 

 

 

12.        Paragachay molybdenum field

 

This field is allocated in Ordubad region in vicinity of Paraga village and stays at 2300-2800m height over sea level.

In the field as an operation site it is known 4 kvarts molybdenum veins.

Main ore minerals are pyrite, khalkopyrite and molybdenum elements.  The field was given for operation in 1952. Nowadays it is being partially operated.

 

13.        Silver polymetal field 

 

This field is allocated in Sharur region and placed in Arpachay river lower flow. It has been known since VII century. The field was given for operation in 1954

 

 

14. Daridag silver content field

 

This field is allocated in Djulfa region in 8-9 km northwest direction.

The ore mass composes of realgar, auripigment, melnikovit, antimonit and pittisit minerals

The field is ready for putting into operation.

 

 

Main free ore deposits (beds) of Nakhchivan AR are as follows:

 

1.     Buzgov travertine field

 

This field is allocated in the territory of Babek region in 40 km from Nakhchivan city northwest direction and in 2km from Ashagi Buzgov village north. The area of the field became 0,6 km2, the useful bed layer thickness – 5,7-59m. It forms block output – 42,8%. The field has been maintaining since 1983.

 

 

2.     Shahtakhti travertine field

 

This field is allocated in Sharur region territory in 3 km from Shahtakhti village in northwest direction. The deposit field consists of three areas: 1 site is allocated in north-west part of Sakhtakhti village, the 2 area – from the 1 site – in o,7 km in north-west, the III site – in 1 km north-west direction. The area of the field was 0,8km, useful bed thickness is 6,5-22,7m. It forms block exit 30-45%. The field is being maintained since 1968.

 

 

2.       Khalach marbled limestone

 

This field is placed in Sharur region in 10 km from Sharur city southwest direction.

The field zone makes up 0,016 sq. km. Useful bed thickness-40-70m, maximal safety thickness rate –24m. Limestone capacity mass –2,33-2,70t/m3, CaCO3 – voice value-98%.

The field was operated till 1990.

 

 

4.     Garabaglar travertine beds

 

This field is allocated in Sharur region in 1 km from Garabaglar village northwest direction.

The field area is 1 sq.m. Useful deposit thickness -15-40m. The field block exit was 58%. From 1 m3 block 17,2 sq km facing plates can be derived. The field has been putting into operation since 1984.

 

 

5.     Oglangala (Boy Mountain) marbling limestone field

 

This field is placed in Sharur region in 8 km from Sharur railroad station northwest direction.

Before it was petty and middle pips bed layer and in different directions it was crossed with calcite vein element. It forms con element - 51,8%. The field is ready for operation

 

 

6.     Nehrem (Churn) dolomite field

 

This field is allocated in Babek region in 10 km from Nehrem (churn) village south area. It places at Darasham railroad station in 2km-north direction. The field area – 5 sq. m. The thickness of dolomite is exceeded 1000m. This material is intended for purposes of manufacturing refractory raw materials, highest rigid break-stones, dehydrated soda, and glass. The field is ready for putting into operation 

 

 

7.     Nakhchivan Dash Duz (Stone-Salt) field

 

This field is allocated in Babek territory in 12 km from Nakhchivan city northwest direction.

In the field there were revealed 5 stone salt layers. Out of them only 2 surfaced layers are utilized in industry. The first layer is allocated in 105-178m down the ground and salt middle thickness makes 6m. The 2nd stratum is separated from the 1st layer by 6-9 thicknesses of clay strata and middle thickness of salt – 8.6m. It forms Nacl value –92-98,5%. The field has been utilized since XIX century.

 

 

8.     Nehrem Dash Duz (stone salt) field.

 

This field is allocated in Babek region in 12 km from Nakhevan city southwest direction.

In the field salt stratum thickness ranged within 43 - 92m. NaCl rate in salt composition makes 78-92%. The field was studied for dehydrated soda. The field is prepared for putting into operation.

 

 

9.     Gomur sulfur field

 

This field is placed in Shakhbuz region. It is allocated in territory of Gomur village.

The field was known since 60 years of XIX century. The field was put into operation for calculating sulfur reserve deposits.  

 

 

10. Paragachay Andaluzite field

 

This field is allocated in Ordubad region. It is placed in 9km from Paragachay molybdenum pit in north direction. In rock deposits it forms quantity of andaluzite-10-30%, sometimes –65-75%. The field had been explored till 10m depths. The deeper done works the more revealed andaluzite deposits. According to the first calculating the quantity of andaluzite reaches 0,5 millions tons. The field can be maintained.

Having summarizing the aforesaid, we may say that throughout the all the territory Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is wealthy by gravel, clay, sand and gyps, stratum fields.

 

 

MINERAL WATERS

 

Due to multi coloring range mineral water springs of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are staying under the worthiest attention throughout the world. On 5,5 thousands sq km territory of Autonomous Republic there were discovered more than 250 mineral water springs. The majority of those sources are in Shargi Arpachay, Nakchevanchay, Alincachay, Gilanchay, Ordubadchay, Garadara and Aylishchay valleys and vicinities. According to their chemical properties, being a certain numbers of types they are being utilized in farming, potable water supply, therapy purposes, and in industry. In the territory the most ancient water carrying rock age is 400 mln. is ranged for 500-700 thousand year.   

        In Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic there are exist 6 types, 16 kinds and 33 different sorts of mineral waters. This water contained 98% carbon gases and it is related to hydrocarbon water kind. Mineral water temperature rate mostly ranged in 8C-22C. There are 35% Azerbaijan carbon gases water discovered in the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

Among the essential mineral waters, as well as for table water needs it is allowed showing such springs like Badamli, Sirab, vayxir, Daridag, Nahacir, Gahab, Ordubad “Narzan”. On the basis of springs there are being operated Badamli and Daridag balneological clinics. Mineral water manufacturing by industrial method has been started since 1947. Nowadays the Autonomous Republic possesses by two mineral water plants. They are allocated closer to Badamli and Sirab mineral water plants.

 

 

“Badamli”

 

This mineral water spring is allocated in almond forest and covered grapevine splendid valley at 1400m heights over sea level. It is placed in 30km from Nakhchivan city in similar named purlieus village (Nakhchivan AR Shakhbuz region). This place was known due to daily debit 2,5mln-litter carbonate water-narzan spring’s basis. Inside composition of the water there is available iodine, bromine, copper, borate acidity. Being based on applied springs in Caucuses there is being operated the biggest mineral water filling plant. Badamli –5 water is known as wonderful table drink water, which makes appetite increasable, improves digestive processes and makes dehydration process calm. Apart from this resort purposing water the latter presents unchangeable remedy for treatment of patients with digestive problems.       

 

 

“Sirab”


Sirab- Borjomi sort water is the famous curing purposes table water. The total mineralizing rate of water is 2,0-2,7g/t including carbonate-hydro-carbonate – natrium-calcium elements. In “Sirab” mineral water there were revealed such elements as iron, bromine and silisium acidities, lithium, strontium elements. On the basis of operated springs it is being functioned “Sirab-12” water filling plant with palatable delicious taste. This water is utilized for digestive and urine secreted ways kind of diseases and, as well as it is used while metabolic process place. The water source is related to the well-known “Gashgala” memorial complex of Bronze Age period and placed near Sirab village.

 

 

“Vayxir”

 

Vayxir was the richest field of Yesentuki sort carbonate, salt – alkali water. It is placed in 17km from Nakhchivan city north direction at 1400m heights over sea level. The daily debit of excavated wells composes more than 2 mln liters. The water composition comprises carbonate, chlor hydro carbonate -natrium elements with total mineralizing rate – 6,5g/l. The water is applied for curing such diseases like digestive diseases, chronicle gastritis, diseases connected with metabolism processes (diabetes melitus, gastritis, diathesis, okslanturia).

 

 

“Daridag”

 

Carbonate mineral silvering water Daridag is the spring, which rarely met in the nature. It is placed in 8 km from Djulfa city north direction. The quantity of discovered reserves is 500 cub meters. It possesses by high mineralizing value (temperature –52S) –21g/l and contains carbonate CO2-1,5 g/l chloride – hydro-carbonate – sodium substances.  At the same time in the composition of the water there were revealed a good deal of amounts of boron, iodine, bromine, strontium and lithium elements. The water is preferable to use for the patients suffering by gastric – bowel diseases. The water possessed by unappreciable quality in terms of applying thereof for baths taking purposes intended for peripheral nervous system diseases.

 

 

“Nakhajir”

 

Nakhajir is considered important treatment health-resort place and it is allocated in north area of Nakhchivan city. Nakhadgir is placed on patches of the mountain. Being based on health-resort stock reserves there are being utilized water springs containing carbonate (1,3g/l free carbonate), iron-hydro carbonate sodium elements with mineralizing rate equaled to 6 g/l. The water shows unbelievable effects whilst taking it for anaemic diseases treatment.

 

 

“Batabat”

 

Batabat is spread over patches of Small Caucasus in 62 km from Nakhchivan city northwest direction. It is placed at 1700 height over sea level and considered important climatic health-resort zone.

It has subtropical climate, snowing, moderate winter, dry and not much hot summer. Being taking into account climatic purposes this is a water in composition of which are available carbonate (essential remedy for aeroheliotherepy treatment), hydro-carbonate, calcium-natrium-magnesium elements with mineralizing rate – 0.5g/l. This water is intended for gastric patients’ treatment purposes. Mild climate, sweet water lake, picturesque and impressive alpine meadows allows for this herbs to be top effective remedy.

 

 

“Gomur”

 

Gomur is the highest mountain top climatic station. It is placed in 75 km from Nakhchivan city at 1700m heights over sea level. Here, there were discovered mineral water fields being enormously enriched with salt-alkali elements. The climate of the place is moderate cold, winter is mild, and summer is cool. Gomur recreational zone is very useful for such diseases treatment like nervous system functional illnesses, fatigue, and gastric and respiratory routes diseases.

 

 

“Sharur”

 

Sharur springs are placed on Sadarak village northwest direction at the upper part of road. Here to exist all grounds for carrying out erection of Clinical Complex being based on springs of strong local curing water (daily debit capacity more than 1 mln liter), containing such elements like carbonate, hydro-carbonate – chlorine -natrium and rare micro-component complexes.

      Nakhchivan region is possessed by luxuriant mineral waters being capable to be competed at world market.

 

 

CLIMATE

 

There are 5 types of climates to exist in Nakhchivan Republic:

1.       Dried summer climate of moderate hot semi desert and dry steppe covers Arax plains and partially lowered mountain areas (600-110m). Here, the medium temperature rate 10-14C, middle annual downfalls till 300mm, possible is steaming rate –1200-1400 mm.

2.       Semi desert climate and dried steppe with dried winter covers upper of lower mountain zone and lower of medium mountains zones (1100-1600m). Medium annum temperature rate 8-10C, middle annual downfalls- 300-350mm, possible vaporing –800-1100mm.

3.       Dried summer climate of cold semi desert and dried stepped climate covers medium part of lower mountain zone and high mountain lower part of zone (1600-2600m). Middle annual temperature rate is 6-10C, middle annual downfalls – 400-800mm. 

4.       Dried summer and cold climate are spread out at 2600-3200m heights only in northwest slopes of Zangezur ridges, in center stripe of high mountain zones. Medium annual temperature 1-3C.

5.       Mountain tundra climate surrounds high mountaintops of the territory (more than 3200m). Medium annual temperature – 3-8C.

 

In the territory obligatory minimum temperature - 31C (Darvish), compulsory maximum temperature -+44C (Djulfa); at the same time this is the most higher and lower temperature within the territory of Azerbaijan Republic. Wind middle speed rate 2/4 m a sec. Annual downfalls in Arax plains makes up 200-300mm, in highest mountain areas – 500-800mm.

 

 

 

INNER WATERS

 

Having been proceeded from hydrographic peculiarity Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is related to Araz river basin. In center and in southwest part of the territory rivers influents take from Zangezur and Daralyaz mountain ridges. In Zangezur ridges – in Sagarsu upper flows, in Goygol, Gazngoldag, Gapichig Gamigaya divisions there are available ancient icy shapes, as well as in summer - snow caps lying on mountaintops.

 

 

 

LAKES

 

Taking into account dried climate conditions on the territory of Autonomous Republic here it is observed less quantity of lakes; their areas and capacities are not a big.  It has, basically, relation to Nature lakes of the territory such as Nakhchivanchay and Gilanchay basins. On the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic there are exists 20 lakes. There were established a certain number of watersheds (Arpachay, Uzunboa, Nehrem, Vayxir, Bananiyar, Gahab, Khok and etc.) and irrigated channels had been laid. One part of water shed of Araz water merger is placed in Nakhchivan territory.

 

 

 

FLORAL CLOTH

 

  The territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic possesses by wealthy flora and vegetative coats. In comparison with other botanic-geography regions of Azerbaijan the flora of Autonomous Republic is richer. In this region there are met 2782 kinds of supreme herbs; they were agglomerated in 773 breeds and 134 families. Among those ones there 68 kinds’ were cultivated as crops. There are 123 families and 697 breeds are related to agrarian plants. There are met flora 732 kinds in Arax river plains, 1326 kinds – in middle mountains, 640 kinds – in top mountains. The listed below vegetative cloth and its types are differed in the territory of Autonomous Republic: deserts and semi deserts, friganoid and steeped plants; mountain meadows and steeps; high grass, sub-Alp and Alpine plains; forests, oasis, riverbank grooves; pits and rock herbs, swamps.

 

 

 

WORLD OF ANIMALS

 

Owing to nature condition and world animal’s wealthy range the territory of Autonomous Republic is differed from other regions in Azerbaijan. Animals habituating here comprise 60-80% of Azerbaijan fauna area. Autonomous Republic’s animal world has been investigated since the second half of 19th century. There were highlighted among animal world: 813 kinds of butterflies, 134 kinds of sovka, 4 sorts of caterpillars, 3 kinds of beetles, 4 kinds of mantis, 67 kinds of rectal-wings’, 75 kinds of grasshoppers, 480 kinds of semi-rigid-wings’.

In rivers and in lakes of Autonomous Republic there were discovered 29 kinds of osseous fishes.

In Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic it is available 6 kinds of amphibious animals and 19 kinds of reptiles.

Out of 366 kinds being registered in Azerbaijan more than half of them (218) are met in this territory. It is known 61 kinds of mammals. Out of 350 of spinal animals, being distributed throughout Autonomous Republic, 45 kinds were inserted into Red Book.

 

Reference: nakhchivan.az